The repayment of a loan in a specified number of equal payments that includes principal and accrued interest.
Annual Percentage Rate (APR)
The annual cost of a loan, including interest, loan fees, and other costs.
An estimate of the market value of a piece of real estate made by a competent professional who knows
local real estate prices and markets.
The value of a property for tax purposes set by a tax assessor according to a formula.
A second mortgage that holds as collateral other property owned by the applicant and currently offered
for sale. The agreement allows the proceeds to be used for closing on the new purchase before the property is sold.
The miscellaneous expenses, over and above the purchase price, involved in closing a real estate
transaction. Some of the closing costs include title insurance, appraisal fee, and credit report.
The final statement of costs incurred to close a loan or to purchase a home. Also referred to as the "HUD-1."
A report on a loan applicant's willingness and ability to make payments in a timely manner in
the past. This report is provided to the bank by an outside agency.
The ratio of a borrower’s monthly debt payments to his or her monthly gross income. Lenders use
this ratio to assist them in determining how much to lend.
A sum of money given as evidence of one's good faith, used to bind a real estate sale. Also known as a "Binder."
Also known as a "Combination Loan." A loan in which you receive a first mortgage for 80 percent
of the loan amount and a second mortgage at the same time for the remainder of the balance. If the
borrower is trying to avoid PMI (private mortgage insurance) it is important to consider a combination
loan or the Advantage 90 loan.
The legal process by which a borrower in default under a mortgage is deprived of his or her interest
in the mortgaged property. This usually involves a forced sale of the property at public auction with
the proceeds of the sale being applied to the mortgage debt.
Good Faith Estimate (GFE)
A disclosure that must be given to all mortgage loan applicants within three business days of an
application. It is an estimate of all settlement charges likely to be incurred at closing.
HELOC (Home Equity Line of Credit)
A credit line secured by a second deed of trust on a house. Equity lines of credit are revolving
accounts that work like a credit card; they can be paid down or charged up for the term of the loan.
The minimum payment due each month is interest only.
The ratio of the principal amount of the loan to the lesser of the purchase price of the property
or the property's appraised value. You may see this expressed as an 80 percent loan, or 80 percent
The time at which an interest rate is set and the length of time the rate will be held prior
to the closing of a loan.
A lien or claim against real estate property given by the buyer to the lender as security for
Also known as "Private Mortgage Insurance" (PMI). Insurance that protects mortgage lenders
against loss in the event of default by the borrower.
The lender in a mortgage transaction.
The borrower in a mortgage transaction.
A process that mortgage lenders use to determine how much money they will lend you based on
a thorough review of your financial situation. Lenders issue a pre-approval letter, which
strengthens your position when bidding on a home as it shows sellers you will be able to raise
funds needed to purchase.
An informal process in which a lender offers an opinion on how much money you may be able to
borrow. This opinion is based entirely on the financial information you provided and is neither
binding nor necessarily accurate because lenders have not yet verified your financial information.
Those expenses of property, such as taxes, insurance, rent, that are paid in advance of their
due date and will usually be prorated upon sale.
Principal and Interest
The total amount needed to pay on a loan each month. This includes the interest owed as well
as the amount paid towards the principal.
A written promise to pay a specific amount for a property at a specified time. The purchase
agreement is a written statement of the offer, which both the borrower and the seller will sign
if the offer is accepted.
The analysis of risk involved in making a mortgage loan to determine whether the risk is
acceptable to the lender. Underwriting involves evaluating the property as outlined in the
appraisal report, as well as evaluating the borrower’s ability and willingness to repay the loan.